Monday, May 25, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Rape Culture is an environment in which rape is prevalent and in which sexual violence against women is normalized and excused in the media and popular cultureÃ¢â¬ (1a) Today you cant turn the television on without hearing references to rape culture. Jokes about sexual abuse plague every sitcom and news channels question rape victimÃ¢â¬â¢s every move. Even entire shows are dedicated to the topic such as Law and Order SVU. The media trivializes rape leading to a rape culture in America. Despite rape culture being clearly relevant in most all forms of media, many people choose to argue against it. Many point to the fact that even if rape is a common crime it is still considered especially heinous. Others complain that rape culture is too muchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shows like Game of Thrones canÃ¢â¬â¢t get through one episode without showing off a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body or implying rape (5a). Even sitcoms like Ã¢â¬Å"Two Broke GirlsÃ¢â¬ join in on it. This is especially surprising as the show is about two women and co-created by a woman. It sports such jokes as, Ã¢â¬Å"Stop fighting it, give in to it. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why IÃ¢â¬â¢m quoting a rapist.Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Somebody date raped me and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think I would live through it but now IÃ¢â¬â¢m stronger and still needy.Ã¢â¬ (6a). Most people would just laugh the joke off and think nothing of it. Walter Moseley, said Ã¢â¬Å"Rape Culture exists because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe it does.Ã¢â¬ (6a). In a study conducted in 2009 by David Lesak and Paul M. Miller, they found that male college students would admit to raping others as long as the word rape wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t used in the questionnaire (6a). This is a byproduct of rape jokes in the media which trivialize rape and make rapists themselves not correlate what they did to rape. Along with television shows, news stations are accused of trivializing rape aswell. How many times have you heard, Ã¢â¬Å"She asked for it.Ã¢â¬ or any other type of victim blaming, or a derivative of,Ã¢â¬Å"Boys will be boys.Ã¢â¬ to make rape seem like not such a big deal (1a)? News channels will even go as far as scrutinizing a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s dress, mental state, motives and history to make the victim seem in the wrong about their rape (1a). Some channels will inflate the fake rape statistics to make rape seem like a lessShow MoreRelatedRape Culture : Rape And The Media1779 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRape Culture (Rape in the Media) Ã¢â¬Å"In the minds of many high school boys, rape isn t always wrong. A Patriot Ledger survey of 527 high school students conducted for this series found that 7 percent of boys said it was OK to force a girl to have sex on a dateÃ¢â¬ (Eschbacher).The media needs to redefine and differently represent rape because it is portrayed as being too hard to define, the media has begun stereotyping the victims and rapists alike, and rape is not being reported because students areRead MoreMedia Makes The Rape Culture More Deadly1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNovember 2015 Media Makes the Rape Culture More Deadly There are many things that go unspoken and put out of mind about until the worst happens, like mass shootings, fatal disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. At that point, a conversation begins about the safety and well being of others. Why is it not talked about without an incident in the public limelight? Our present media thrives on writing about the suffering of others, and become forgetful when another incident occurs. Media creates a goodRead MoreRape : Taking Down Rape Culture1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTaking Down Rape Culture No matter where one goes there will always be rape that both men and women suffer from. Sometimes how the media and others portray rape make it seem like itÃ¢â¬â¢s not that big of a deal. We all, at times, blame the victim, so then we can feel more in control of our lives by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Rape will never happen to me because I would never do this or I would never do that.Ã¢â¬ With men, people usually say, Ã¢â¬Å"Wow, did you see what she looks like? He should be happy they had sex.Ã¢â¬ What I proposeRead MoreSexual Objectification Of Rape Culture1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJustice System: Statistics | RAINN,Ã¢â¬ 994 perpetrators out of 1000 rape cases will walk free; and every 108 seconds a sexual assault is committed. You may have heard of rape culture on the news, social media, and/or online, but rape culture isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just some group of people or a society, but rather the concept of rape culture means we have familiarized ourselves and have come to terms with rape an d have made it our norm in society or our culture. We have learned to brush it under the carpet, and often jokeRead MoreRape Culture Essay1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages For centuries, rape culture has not been clearly defined by ideas, beliefs, or attitudes. As a pretty controversial subject, there is no correct definition for the term Ã¢â¬Å"rape cultureÃ¢â¬ . It is generally defined by the way a person perceives rape, and for that reason, there are many beliefs towards rape. Rape is generally unlawful and unwanted sexual intercourse between any person. In this shocking world today, most perpetrators of sexual assaults are caused by heterosexual men, and for the most partRead MoreVictim Blaming By The Canadian Resource Center For Victims Of Crime1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesblaming affects the lives of many, including both men and women. The act of victim blaming can be detrimental in many ways. It can affect the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to come forward and report a crime, it influ ences how the media and society portrays the victims, and it promotes rape culture; therefore, victims tend to blame themselves, and the offender is less likely to be held responsible. Victim Blaming can be dangerous because victims are less likely to come forward or even report a crimeRead MoreRape Culture And Its Effect On Society Essay1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRape Culture is Internalized in Our Society Society has normalized rape culture. In our society, victims of sexual assault are blamed for their own assault, while those that assaulted them are often given reassuring words. However, in our society, rapists are often times excused for their actions while actual victims of sexual assault are scrutinized. Rape culture is internalized in our society from a young age through the normalization of sexualizing women, the excusing of rapists and the blamingRead MoreRape in Society1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA cause of rape culture is the objectification and domination of woman. Men are taught to assert their dominance and superiority, and some will do that with or without consent. Men see women as objects waiting to be used and conquered whether it is at home, the work place, or in the media. A womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body is not her own, but merely used for the pleasure of a man. A solution to this problem would not be, telling women what to wear, how to act and what they can or cannot do; but i t is teaching malesRead MoreRape Culture And Its Effect On Society1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRape culture is all around us; it lurks in advertisement, television shows, and movies, itÃ¢â¬â¢s even in our language objectifying womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies. Rape culture is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an environment in which rape is prevalent and in which sexual violence against women is normalized and excused in the media and popular cultureÃ¢â¬ (marshall.edu). Something to keep in mind, the term is called Ã¢â¬Å"rape cultureÃ¢â¬ for a reason. Ã¢â¬Å"CultureÃ¢â¬ is defined in anthropological terms as learned behaviors that are passed on from generationRead MoreThe Realities of Rape Essay1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesostracized, and overwhelmed. Your physical injuries are nothing compared to the pain that dwells in your heart. This is the story of the Central Park jogger, and this is the reality of rape. Rape is when someone forces you to take part in sexual activity of any kind if you have said no and do not consent. Date rape is when someone you know through social connections forces you into sex. It doesnt have to just be intercourse, it could be oral sex or anal sex. Penetration can be from a body
Thursday, May 14, 2020
As a bug lover, Im always trying to convince other people to stop killing every six-legged critter that comes within ten feet. Its not just about my personal interest in insects. There are a lot of good reasons why you shouldnt kill bugs: Insects were here first, by over 300 million years. Technically, were on their turf. Insects killed the dinosaurs. What if T. Rex was still wandering around here, eating small children at will?*Other things eat insects, like birds and lizards and my cat.If you kill a good insect, youll wind up with more bad insects than you can possibly kill. Then youll be sorry.Some insects do essential jobs that Americans wont do, like pollinating flowers. A gentleman from Eatontown, NJ just demonstrated a whole new reason why you shouldnt kill bugs - you might just blow yourself to kingdom come. Isias Vidal Maceda attempted a little DIY extermination in his kitchen by spraying an unnamed brand of bug killer, only to have the chemical ignite an explosion. While he did succeed in eliminating the pests, he also eliminated 80% of his apartment and 100% of his eyebrows. * - In the interest of accurate reporting, I must admit that this particular statement might be a slight exaggeration. Not the part about insects killing the dinos, that parts true. According to Dinosaur Bob (Guide to Dinosaurs), the scuttlebutt among paleontologists today is that Tyrannosaurus Rex may have been an enormous sloth of a dino, incapable of pursuing and capturing small children.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
3) Risk-dependent lncRNAs transcripts significantly recaptured both neural tube-specific enhancers that were validated in-vivo and the neuroblastoma-susceptibility variations that were found by GWASs. In order to discover oncogenic noncoding loci, we first asked whether deregulated noncoding transcripts between two distinct risk-groups over-represent functional enhancers that have been evident by tissue-specific enhancer activities and disease-susceptibility alleles in neuroblastoma. To identify functional enhancers from transcriptome profiling, we have reanalyzed dysregulated transcripts derived from total RNA-seq data (GSE49711, n=498, tumor cell content 60%) pertaining to neuroblastoma patients with risk-stratifications (28). ToÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Specifically, over 1400 positively validated tissue-specific enhancers were downloaded from the VISTA Enhancer Browser (31). These in-vivo validation was tissue-specific, thus an empirical p-value was also calculated per type of tissue and enriched for neural tube (empirical P0.005, Fig 3D). We conclude that risk-group dependent lncRNAs are a powerful metric to indicate tissue-specific functional enhancers. A Ã¢â¬Å"risk-dependent enhancerÃ¢â¬ was hereafter defined from the neuro-tube-specific enhancers if its locus overlaps with any risk-dependent lncRNAs. Oncogenic signaling underlying these tissue-specific and risk-dependent enhancers is ready for interpretation. We identified 37 neural tube-specific risk-dependent enhancers, of which we observed three strong associations to oncogenesis below: - We first inquired the TF binding potency, as the binding of sequence-specific TFs to cognate motifs is typically required by enhancers to regulate gene expression (32). 70 human TFs showed significant binding potency (odds1.5, FDR0.001, with more than 10% instance proportion), with tumorigenic regulator FoxM1 among the top 5 (Fig 3E). - None housekeeping genes were captured, agreeing with the idea that housekeeping genes are in general regulated by simple promoters (1). In contrast, these TFs significantly over-represent known oncogenes (P=0.01, odds=5) and tumor suppressor genes (P=0.0003, odds=7.5, Fig
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe the challenges associated with intervention, assessment, discussion, and educating patient having dementia-related problems? Answer: Introduction Dementia adversely affects the receptive and expressive abilities of people communicating with health care professionals. It is hence the assessment of health care needs and assistance often becomes difficult. The present paper discusses the challenges associated with intervention, assessment, discussion, and educating patient having dementia-related problems. The next, effective strategies are discussed focusing on the utilization of resources, mechanism behind the sentence structure and choice of word (Norton, 2012). These measures not only ensure successful communication and understanding the concern of patients, but also help in providing effective care services. About Dementia Dementia is the problem associated with forgetfulness, difficulty in understanding, expressing, and communicating. In other words, the difficulty is more concerned with perception and expression related phenomenon. The problem is more links with children care and adult patients, tailoring the difficulty of language and patients ability to discuss (Moreira, O'Donovan Howlett, 2014). How nurses should communicate with Dementia patient Conditions related to pressure ulcer pain, cancer, diabetes, fracture, heart failure, dehydration and other similar condition often requires intensive communication. The objective of such discussion and intervention is to measure the severity of the condition and find possible measures suitable for treatment. The difficulty, nurses and other help care professionals often find with patient is dementia-related situation. Owing to the trait of forgetfulness and difficulty in perceiving and expressing ability, it becomes difficult to exchange the message and ideology. It is essential for health care professionals to develop critical skills, which not only produce effectiveness in communication, but also provide worthy benefit in care approach. Some of the critically required skills and understanding of nurses in conjunction with providing nursing and health care services with dementia patient are (Corcoran, 2011): The general strategy of using yes or no choice of questions for assessment is optimum. It is important to perceive whether patient is able to understand with eye or body movement. Instructions for patient should be simpler and care should be taken so that patient could be able to read and understand it easily. Verbal instructions should be simpler and easy to understand. It is more convenient to take into consideration of family members, carer in the conversation course. The approach should be lean towards the patient, so that choice can be successfully made by them. Other than this, it is the wisdom of nurses, to identify the level of difficulty in creating the sentence and the logical flow of ideas by the patient. Hence, appropriate the nurses have the responsibility to identify the meaning and deliver the message inaccurate and understanding form, back to the patient. Also on the other part, nurses can advise to family members are caregivers to go for speech therapy for recommendation and suggestions. In other case, nurses need to maintain the patience and have empathy for any odd situation related to combative or aggressive behavior by patient. Techniques for making effective communication and sentence structure Main idea - The main idea related to identification of the severity with respect to problem of perception and expression in patients. Help from speech therapy, family members and caregivers can be taken in this situation. Organization - It is important to take care of sentence structure, using simple instructions and confirming with various simpler means that patient is able to understand (Pollock, 2014). Content development - Evidence-based practice has potential to serve the fruitful outcomes. Use of resources - Use of yes-no type questions, simple instruction to read and use verbally, and confirming if the patient is able to understand. Using nonverbal approach with eye contact, physical touch and facial expression is the reliable resource for making communication easier. Grammar and mechanics - For the patients with limited English proficiency, and severe problem in understanding the words or verbal instruction, it is crucial for healthcare professionals to communicate. The most reliable way of finding solution in this regard is to use evidence-based protocols (Wang, Hsieh Wang, 2013). Sentence structure - identification of patient discomfort zone with words like pain, hurt, and ouch should be in the concern of nurses. Other than this, it is also helpful in using physical cues for the instruction, as patient can understand those signs easily compared to understanding and interpreting the verbal language. The identification of patients understanding can be obtained with respect to their ability to make choice among two simpler objects of options. Word choice - Use of simple words, such as phone rather than telephone; toilet than bathroom are useful in communication with dementia patients. Certainly, patients use to refer some specific words or phrases to express certain words. Say for example they patient want to ask how much time it will take to complete?, and they refer to word clock. In this case, nurses should refer to the caregiver or family member; whether patient use such words for any phrase (Jeon, 2011). Conclusion In conclusion, it is often to realize that health care professionals face many adverse condition and challenges in dealing with patients having dementia like problem. The concerned problematic situation is common with children and older adults. It is more important for health care professionals to identify such problem and use wisdom for simplifying the situation. References: Corcoran, M. A. (2011). Caregiving styles: A cognitive and behavioral typology associated with dementia family caregiving. The Gerontologist, gnr002. Jeon, Y. H., Sansoni, J., Low, L. F., Chenoweth, L., Zapart, S., Sansoni, E., Marosszeky, N. (2011). Recommended measures for the assessment of behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(5), 403-415. Moreira, T., O'Donovan, O., Howlett, E. (2014). Assembling Dementia Care: patient organisations and social research. BioSocieties, 9(2), 173-193. Norton, M. C., Dew, J., Smith, H., Fauth, E., Piercy, K. W., Breitner, J., ... WelshÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Bohmer, K. (2012). Lifestyle behavior pattern is associated with different levels of risk for incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the Cache County study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(3), 405-412. Pollock, B. G., Mulsant, B. H., Rosen, J., Sweet, R. A., Mazumdar, S., Bharucha, A., ... Chew, M. L. (2014). Comparison of citalopram, perphenazine, and placebo for the acute treatment of psychosis and behavioral disturbances in hospitalized, demented patients. Wang, J. J., Hsieh, P. F., Wang, C. J. (2013). Long-term care nurses' communication difficulties with people living with dementia in Taiwan. Asian nursing research, 7(3), 99-103.
Friday, April 10, 2020
In this module we will be looking closely at how to approach close reading of fiction with our Senior English students. We will: think about text selection. think holistically about what a fiction unit might cover. understand some generic elements of prose fiction as a form and how they might be taught. learn how to develop 3 level guides as prompts for close reading. Lets begin by discussing the novels we might use with a senior English class. In most departments, teachers are free to choose texts for study with their class (departmental resources will limit the scope of your choice). It is important that you develop an idea of what you think is suitable for a senior class. Think back to your own experiences with prose fiction study and to texts you have enjoyed reading independently. Are there any you would consider appropriate for study with a year 11, 12 or 13 class? Why? Activity 1:1:1: Discussion Forum Texts for study Narrative study an overview The study of narrative is the study of how stories are told. We will write a custom essay sample on Prose Fiction in the English Classroom or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When we study prose fiction, we are looking in detail at the choices that the author has made and how those choices combine to create a particular piece of writing. It is important to convey to your students the idea that nothing happens by accident; everything contained in the novel /short story is a product of the authors choices. These choices are made purposefully for a particular effect and to elicit a particular response in the reader. In order to help students understand this, we need to focus our study on the selection and organisation of material in the text. The following outline provides a useful overview of the headings we might include in a novel study structured around the selction and organistaion of material in a text. Read through the outline carefully. NarrativeNarrative is how a story is told. The how of story-telling involves techniques and conventions characteristic of narrative genres, e. g. narratives, anecdotes, news stories, parables. How involves: A) SELECTION(i) Vantage Point:1. Who tells the story. (Narrator) 2. Scope of the access. (Limited/omniscient) 3 Perspective in time (Removed/retrospective, immediate tense) (ii) Content:1. What are the significant settings? 2. Who are the significant characters? 3. What are the significant events and actions? B) ORGANISATION(i) The basis for sequence (plot) ii) The basis for juxtaposition. | Using this as our guide, lets look at how we might approach each aspect with a senior English class. In particular, we will discuss the activities, explanations and questions that might be of use. First though, we need a short story to read as an example for discussion. Read through the story A Piece of Yellow Soap by Frank Sargeson. Pre-reading At the very beginning of a prose fiction unit, it is common for a teacher to ask students to engage in an introductory activity. These activities are designed to draw students into the study of a text they have not yet read. A pre-reading activity might address itself to the theme of a piece of fiction, or be concerned with some aspect of style or form. Design a pre-reading activity you might use with a class studying A Piece of Yellow Soap, then add your ideas to the discussion below. Activity 1:1:2: Discussion Forum Pre-reading Point of View Once the pre-reading is complete and the students have read the text (hopefully), it is time to look in detail at various aspects of the text. It is not unusual for teachers to begin discussions on a novel/short story with a close look at the vantage point or point of view chosen by the writer. In my experience, students tend to struggle a little with point of view and the idea of a narrator, so it is important to have a clear explanation up your sleeve. Think about how you would describe the concept of point of view to a senior English class. And, just as a wee extra challenge, think about how you might make a connection between point of view and irony. Once you have pondered this, click on the link below to add your explanations. Activity 1:1:3: Discussion Forum Point of view Ok. Lets look at some resources that might help you. The art of the short story (page 22 of your readings) is a chapter taken from Close-Up on Literary text (Locke,2001) In the point of view section, the author asks readers to look closely at the narrator first. Read through the following excerpt and answer the 5 questions with reference to A piece of yellow soap. This introduction and these questions help students first to discover who the narrator of the story is, before they begin looking at the narrators influence on the story. They may still need to clarify the difference between the narrator and the author of the text. The next set of questions from The art of the short story helps them to do this. Once again, work through the questions with reference to A piece of yellow soap. The narrator of a story should not be confused with the writer. The writer of this story is Frank Sargeson. 6 On the basis of this story alone, which of the above questions can you answer if you substitute the word writer for the word narrator? 7 How would you go about finding answers to the questions that canÃ¢â¬â¢t be answered on the basis of information found in the story? 8 How might knowledge about Frank Sargeson contribute to your reading of this story? Once students have a firm understanding of the narrator and have it clearly differentiated from the author. It is time to begin looking more broadly at point of view. This invloves asking students to look at the perspective from which the story is being told. Work through the following explanation and questions reflecting as you do on the extent to which they help you develop a better understanding of the point of view. If you think of a story as providing a particular window onto the world a particular angle of vision then you are reflecting on the important notion of point of view. Point of view answers the question, Through whose eyes or from what vantage point am I viewing the action that is being presented in this story. (A useful analogy here is to imagine a movie camera and to think about how its location affects what we see when we are watching a movie. )9 From whose perspective is this story being told? 10 How much time has elapsed between the story being told and the telling itself? 11 How limited is the narrative point of view? To answer this question, try identifying the sorts of information that the narrator cannot access. 2 How involved is the narrator in the story? Is he quite central to the action or is he quite peripheral (like a witness to a motor accident)? [Language Tool Kit:Narrator: The voice one can identify as telling a story. Point of view: The perspective from which the events of a story are presented. Chronological time: The order followed by events as they actually happened. Psychological time: The order of events as they are recalled or reconstructed in a persons mind. ]Finally, we can distinguish between first-person and third-person narrators. A Piece of Yellow Soap is a an example of a first-person narrative, told from the point of view of a character who has quite a degree of involvement in the story being told. 13 Identify the pronouns in the first paragraph of this story which tell you whether this is a first-person or third-person narrative. | These explanantions and questions should prove useful in guiding students to a clear understanding of a narrator and his/her influence on the text. Time When we look at the ways in which the author has chosen to orientate the story, it is important to examine the authors treatment of time. When we do this, we are asking studnets to look at whether the narrators perspective is immediate (present tense), retrospective (past tense) or a mixture (see The art of the short story p. 25 of your readings for a table of tenses if you need clarification), and at the ways in which time is manipulated to suit the purposes of the author. The following exercise (from The art of the short story) is designed to make students think about the relationship between time and story-telling. As you read through them jot down some answers Time Activity You cant tell a story without thinking about time. The following log exercise is designed to make you think about the relationship between time and story-telling. 1. Write down in chronological order the things you did after you work up this morning. (You dont have to go on for too long. ) 2. Underline the words you used to indicate the sequence in time of what you were recounting. (First, then, later are examples of such words. ) 3. From the flow of events that have occured since you woke up, choose and describe the most memorable. 4. Add to this description an account of what lead up to or caused this event to happen. Reflect on what these questions are guiding you towards. What have you learnt by doing this activity? Or, what would your students learn by doing this activity? Activity 1:1:4: Discussion Forum Time Look back at our overview. As you can see, we have had a close look now at the elements that come under the heading of Vantage Point. We are going to take a quick detour now to plot because it makes sense to get a good grip on this before moving on to the content (character, setting etc). Plot Teaching plot can be tricky, mainly because it sounds deceptively simple. The key to students coming to grips with it is having a clear defintion of plot and some narrative structure terms to work with. So, how would you define plot to a senior English class? What are some plot elements that you would consider helpful in helping students understand the way a particular narrative is structured? Activity 1:1:5: Discussion Forum Plot The following extract from The art of the short story offers some clear definitions of a number of plot elements that may be of use to you and your students. As you read through them, try to connect as many as possible with specific parts of the short story A Piece of Yellow Soap. There are a number of plot elements that can be used to shape or structure a narrative. The selection and arrangement of these plot elements have an enormous impact on the effect a story has on its readers. although A piece of Yellow Soap is a very short story, it contains a number of plot elements. i Exposition: Exposition is the provision of important background information so that a reader feels oriented to what is happening in a story. How effective is the opening paragraph of this story as an example of exposition? ii Predicament: A predicament is a difficult choice difficult because it involves a character in a choice between two undesirable options. 2 What is the narrators predicament as described in paragraph one? iii Conflict: Most plots involve conflict. Conflict occurs in a plot when a character or groups interests are opposed by another character or group. 3 Why is the narrator in conflict with the woman? 4 On the face of it, the woman is the milkmans antagonist. Find evidence in the story that the narrator also feels himself in conflict with:Ã¢â¬ ¢ his firm;Ã¢â¬ ¢ the way his societys economy is organised;Ã¢â¬ ¢ certain peoples views about God. Conflict can also be internal. Internal conflict occurs when two parts of a character are in involved in a struggle with each other. 5 In what way might the narrator of this story be described as in conflict with himself? iv Rising action: The part of a story, often accompanied by tension and suspense, which leads up to a climax or some other defining moment. 6 In what way does paragraph two contain suspense? ) Climax: A climax is the highest point in a single action, the decisive moment towards which events appear to be heading . 7 Which paragraph (indeed which sentence), in your view, provides a climax for this story? vi) Denouement: This is a French word meaning unravelling. It refers to the process which follows a climax, where some kind of sense is made of the proceeding events. Sometimes the denouement involves a discovery or a disclosure. Sometimes, as in this case, it involves a moment of recognition a sudden growth in awareness or the realisation of some truth. In what sense, do the last two paragraphs of this story provide a recognition. 9 Is this recognition for the narrator, the reader (or both)? [Language Tool Kit:Exposition: The provision of essential background information early in the narration of a story. Predicament: A difficult choice between undesirable alternatives, often presented to a character early in a narrative. Conflict: A situation where the interests of characters or groups of characters are opposed. Antagonist: Usually, but not always, a character whose interests are opposed to th ose of the main character or group of characters in a story. Internal conflict: A situation where two parts of a single character are in conflict with each other. Rising action: The suspenseful part of a story leading up to its climax. Climax: The decisive moment in a story towards which events appear to be heading. Denouement: The process of unravelling or winding down that occurs in the aftermath of a storys climax. ]| Lets look, by way of example, at what we might do in the classroom to help students gain a better understanding of one of thesed terms: predicament. Once we have discussed the definition of predicament, we would need to help students pinpoint the predicament the narrator recounts in the short story. Having done this, it would be useful to engage students in a kind of role play activity to help them better understand the narrators predicament which is central to the story. This role play would be fun to do as a drama activity, using a voiced thoughts monologue. If this were impratical, it could also be done in the form of some expressive writing. Either way, the task itself might look something like this The milkmans predicament activity. Imagine you are the milkman and you are just about to go and visit the woman to ask her for money. What are you thining/worrying about? What thoughts are competing in your head? Try to use some quotes from the story and some of your own words. Activities such as this could (time permitting) be constructed for each plot element to help students develop a thorough understanding of the storys narrative structure. Character and characterisation Senior students seldom have any problems with the idea of character. By year 11, it is a term they are generally familiar with and comforatble using. Characterisation on the other hand is a different story. Understanding the term characterisation invloves students making the shift to seeing text as something that has been constructed by the author and that is constructed by the reader as he/she reads. This can be a difficult jump for some! So, how can we explain the difference between character and characterisation to senior English students? Keeping in mind that the term character refers to WHAT and the term characterisation refers to HOW, write some defiinitions that you might use with your students. Then, write some questions relating to A Piece of Yellow Soap that guide students to an understanding of characterisation. Activity 1:1:5: Discussion Forum Character and Characterisation For a clear definition, lets refer again to The art of the short story. Characterisation refers to the process whereby readers construct characters on the basis of evidence in the text provided by writers. This evidence can include:Ã¢â¬ ¢ actions;Ã¢â¬ ¢ thoughts, feelings and deliberations;Ã¢â¬ ¢ descriptions (from a narrator or another character);Ã¢â¬ ¢ dialogue| Setting Looking back to our overview of narrative study, the final remaining element under the heading of selection is setting. You may find students have a functioning albeit narrow understanding of the term setting as the place where the story happens. With a senior class, our task is generally to help them broaden this definition to include time and the cultural setting in which the text was composed and to help them to understand the ways in which setting is important in a prose fiction text. How would you explain to students what setting is and why it is important in a work of fiction? Design an activity that helps students understand the importance of setting in a piece of yellow soap. Activity 1:1:6: Discussion Forum Setting Style Style is a combination of the way a writer uses words, syntax and punctuation. In some books, the word texture is used to denote the characteristics of style a reader is aware of at any point in the narrative. As such it can be usefully contrasted with the term structure whicg refers to the organisation of the text as a whole. (Art of the Short Story). It would take far too long to look at all the possible terms and techniques that we might discuss under the heading of style. It might therefore, be more useful to discuss the particular features of style evident in A Piece of Yellow Soap, so that you can get a grip on how a style discussion might work ina classroom. Read through A piece of Yellow Soap once again, paying particular attention to its style. List some metalinguistic terms (terms used to describe language) you would use to describe the style of this short story. Select one sentence of the story that you believe would elicit an interesting discussion about style. Activity 1:1:7: Discussion Forum Style Theme The term theme is a problematic one. If we refer to the theme of a novel, then we imply that a theme is a central message put in by a writer who is deliberately concerned to raise an issue or communicate a lesson to the reader (The Art of the Short Story, p8. ) In the version of reading that this constructs, the reader is merely a passive recipient of the ideas in the story. How else might we look at the idea of theme (and reading in general)? How would you present the idea of theme to a senior English class? Activity 1:1:8: Discussion Forum Theme 3 level guides Just before we wind up this module, Id like to look at a type of resource that can be extremely useful when approaching close reading of a text with a class. The 3 level guide offers a set of questions which draw students into a close reading of a text. Students are asked to agree or disagree (providing textual evidence) with propositions grouped in three categories: Level 1: Reading for information Level 2: Reading to interpret Level 3: Reading critically Lets look at some examples from a 3 level guide written for Chapter 23 of the novel The Catcher in the Rye by J. D Salinger. Level 1: Holden has only a short converstaion on the phone with Mr Antolini. Level 2: Holden respects Antolini because he doesnt care about appearances. Level 3: Holden believes that natural ability is a stronger factor in what a person can do than education or training. Question 1 is straightforward. Students can go to the text and find a definitive answer. Level 1 questions involve facts that are direc tly stated in the text. Question 2 is more complex. It requires students to interpret a characters thoughts, words or actions in some way. They may need to refer to other parts of the text to do this. The level 3 question is still more complex. It requires students to apply a critical perspective to the text to examine the belief systems or prejudices at work in a characters actions. Sometimes, level 3 questions require students to examine their own beliefs and prejudices that are supported or challenged by the text. In your readings, you will find a copy of a short story commonly taught in year 11 English classes, The Outsider by Graeme Lay. Read through the first few pages of the short story. Once you have done so, come up with one questions for each level of a three level guide. Activity 1:1:9: Discussion Forum 3 level guide
Monday, March 9, 2020
Average National SAT Scores for 2012 Ã Over a million high-schoolers registered for the SATÃ in 2012. Their average scores provide some interesting insights into this group. Whether they wanted admission to theÃ top public universitiesÃ or another school of their choice, see how they performed. Overall SAT Scores for 2012 The mean is the average score of every student who took the SAT from the fall of 2011 through June of 2012. Here are the mean scores for all testers by section: Overall: 1498Critical Reading: 496Mathematics: 514Writing: 488 (subscores: multiple-choice: 48.1 / essay: 7.3) See how these compare: SAT Scores for 2013 SAT Scores by Gender As is often seen, boys were better on average in the Mathematics section and they also slightly outperformed girls as a whole in the Critical Reading Section. But females outperformed them on average in the Writing section. You can compare your scores with the average for your gender. Critical Reading:Ã Males: 498. Females: 493Mathematics:Ã Males: 532. Females: 499Writing:Ã Males: 481. Females: 494 SAT Scores by Reported Annual Income Higher parental income is associated with a higher SAT score. This doesnt necessarily mean that wealthier families produce smarter children. But it likely has some relationship to parents sending their children to better schools and being more willing to purchase SAT prep. They may also be more willing to spend money on retakes of the examination. $0 to $20,000: 1323$20,000 to $40,000: 1398$40,000 to $60,000: 1461$60,000 to $80,000: 1503$80,000 to $100,000: 1545$100,000 to $120,000: 1580$120,000 to $140,000: 1594$140,000 to $160,000: 1619$160,000 to $200,000: 1636$200,000 and more: 1721 SAT Scores by AP/Honors Classes It is helpful to know which courses in school tend to produce the highest SAT scores. You could guess that students who take AP courses or rigorous Honors courses are going to score higher on the SAT, but the degree to which they score better is significant. The question is which came first, the chicken or the egg? Do these students score higher due to their natural abilities, or do the courses themselves prepare students better for the SAT? Check out the stats: AP/Honors Math 1698: Mean SAT score for those enrolled in AP/Honors Math1404: Mean SAT score for those not enrolled Percentage of SAT Testers Enrolled in AP/Honors Math by Ethnicity All students: 36 percentAfrican American: 25 percentAmerican Indian: 31 percentAsian: 47 percentHispanic: 31 percentWhite: 40 percent AP/Honors English 1655: Mean SAT score for those enrolled in AP/Honors Math1404: Mean SAT score for those not enrolled Percentage of SAT Testers Enrolled in AP/Honors English by Ethnicity All students: 42 percentAfrican American: 34 percentAmerican Indian: 40 percentAsian: 44 percentHispanic: 39 percentWhite: 46 percent AP/Honors Natural Science 1698: Mean SAT score for those enrolled in AP/Honors Math1414: Mean SAT score for those not enrolled Percentage of SAT Testers Enrolled in AP/Honors Natural Science by Ethnicity All students: 35 percentAfrican American: 24 percentAmerican Indian: 28 percentAsian: 43 percentHispanic: 28 percentWhite: 38 percent 2012 SAT Scores Summary The statistics say youd have the best advantage on the SAT if you were a male of Asian ethnicity whose family who made more than $200,000 per year. You could always prepare regardless of your ethnic heritage or familial status. These statistics represent the mean but do not, of course, represent the individual. If you have nothing in common with the groups scoring the highest on the SAT, it does not mean that you cant secure a top-notch score. Start with some free SAT practice quizzes, grab some free SAT apps, and prepare yourself the best way you can.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Growth of Jazz - Research Paper Example matter of fact, jazz is a mixture of the long-term West African tradition based on a call-and-response model and distinct melody line, which neglected the European concept of harmony that was a characteristic feature of European musical tradition (McIntosh 26). In next to no time jazz grew into something more than just a regional African-American folk music of the Southern states and became a critically acclaimed and extremely popular music genre in its own right well across the United States. By the beginning of the 20th century jazz became a synonym of novelty in music. Improvisation, clashing time signatures based on syncopated rhythms and a unique style of performance of the rhythmic texture, such as swing, were typical of the music language of jazz in the first half of the 20th century (Carvalho 286). Further development of jazz was accounted for new rhythmic and harmonic patterns brought in by jazz musicians and composers, which in turn gave fresh impetus to the growth of vario us new subgenres of jazz, such as bebop, hard bop, cool jazz, free jazz, soul jazz and a lot more. Once one of the brightest legends of the traditional jazz, Louis Armstrong, first came on stage, the boundaries of jazz were pushed even further and solo performance gained widespread popularity. Armstrongs innovative performance encompassed solo improvisation with trumpet. His multifaceted experimental creative work stirred others into seeking for new musical art forms involving a number of instruments that were not typical for jazz before, which made this music genre even more popular in the United States of America. By the end of 1920s jazz broke into mainstream and became one of the most popular musical genres both in the United States and overseas. With the advent of sound-recording technology and rise of major record labels that searched for talented musician all across the United States such jazz musicians as Louis Armstrong or Fletcher Henderson became more recognized than any